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How to Connect Solar Panels to the Grid

By Benjamin Strusnik July 18, 2022

how to connect solar panels to the grid

Solar power is a clean and reliable source of energy for your house. Solar panels can be expensive but you can connect your solar panel to your home’s grid-power electricity. By doing this, you save money and make yourself less dependent on the whims of your municipal supplier. 

In this article, we go over all the steps to connect your solar panels to the grid. We also go through connection and equipment requirements, as well as grid safety components and batteries for grid-connected homes.

Connecting Solar Panels to Your Grid

Step 1

You can use a DIY solar kit for your home to install solar panels on your roof. You should try to supply about 5,000 watts of power per day to the house. You have to install a minimum of 20 250-watt panels for your home to become completely energy independent.

how to connect solar panels to grid

If you’re using more than one solar panel, you need to find out how to connect multiple solar panels.

By using solar panels, you can reduce the amount of power that your power grid uses. This is because the solar panels will be able to run things like your water pump, refrigerator, and some lights in the house. 

Step 2

Before you install batteries for the solar panels, you need to make a decision whether you want to replace your grid electricity or not. You can either replace it or install solar power that still uses grid electricity. 

You can also find out if solar panels are connected in series or parallel

You can choose to use solar panels as backup energy only. In this case, you do not need batteries. If you are switching entirely to solar power, you will have to use batteries that store the solar power for use at night.

Step 3

You can’t connect a solar panel directly to a battery. Instead, you need to invest in a charge controller to make sure the current and voltage for the battery are at the correct levels.

You can connect the solar panels directly to a power inverter and then connect it to your home grid. Alternatively, you can connect the inverter to the battery and then to the home power grid. 

The inverter converts the solar energy into energy that is consumed at home. Every panel on your roof uses direct current (DC) and your home power uses alternating current (AC). The power inverter converts DC into AC power.

how to connect solar panel to grid

Step 4

Link the inverter and the battery together. Try to find how to connect a solar panel to a battery and inverter diagram

The wiring from the battery to a circuit breaker and an electrical shunt will be installed. Deliver DC current to the inverter at this point. 

To avoid damage and overload, the circuit breaker and shunt will allow the current to break. The movement of electricity is controlled in this way.

Step 5

Connect the inverter to your home's AC fuse box. The inverter uses several transformers and switches to change DC electricity into AC current. Your home's sockets and outlets are powered by these, and your electronics and appliances receive energy as a result.

Step 6

If your solar or battery power runs out, connect the AC generator to the power inverter to give additional electricity. Solar energy is erratic, so if there are several weeks of overcast days, you risk using up all of your stored solar energy. To provide power, a backup source is necessary.

Load Side and Supply-Side Connection

There are two basic approaches when you connect a grid-tied solar panel system. You need to know how to connect solar panels to your house. 

The most common is a "load side" connection. This is made after the main breaker.

The second approach is a "line or supply-side" connection. This is made before the main breaker.

connecting solar panels to grid

Load Side Connection

The most typical way of connection is a load-side connection. The electrical panel receives a new circuit breaker or breaker. The dual-pole or double-space circuit breaker will be put in the place that is farthest away from the main breaker. 

The PV solar system wires are then attached to this new solar breaker. Before connecting, a PV service disconnect box of the proper size must be utilized. A cheap external disconnect can be added, or some inverters already come with one.

Line/Supply-Side Connection

With electrical tasks, there are numerous ways to complete them. A "Supply or Line Side" connection is a different type of utility connection. 

Between the main service panel and the utility meter, a junction box is added. The junction box is then used to link the wires from the utility meter, the main breaker panel, and the PV solar.

Connection Requirements for Grids

There are many different requirements for connecting distributed generating systems. These include house, wind, or renewable energy systems, to the electrical grid. 

However, connecting small renewable energy systems to the grid presents a common set of challenges for all power suppliers. 

Therefore laws typically include safety and power quality, contracts, metering, and prices.

how to connect solar panel to house electricity

To learn about the exact requirements of your power provider, you must speak with them directly. Try contacting your state utilities commission or state utility consumer advocate group. 

You can also contact your state consumer representation office, or state energy office. This is in case your power company does not have a designated employee to handle grid-connection requests.

Equipment Required

You will need to buy some extra equipment so you can safely transport electricity to your loads. You also need to comply with your power provider's grid-connection regulations. This is in addition to the principal small renewable energy system components. You might require the following supplies:

  • Gear for power conditioning
  • Safety apparatus
  • Instruments and meters

Before purchasing any component, you should speak with your power provider. This is to find out about its unique grid-connection requirements as they can differ.

Grid Safety Components

Power suppliers want to make sure that your system has components for power quality and safety. These elements include power conditioning equipment. 

This guarantee that your power matches the voltage and frequency of the electricity flowing through the grid. It also ensures that it switches to disconnect your system from the grid in the event of a power surge or power outage.

Several organizations are creating national guidelines. These guidelines are for equipment manufacture, operation, and installation. 

Your power provider will be aware of which standards apply to your situation and how to implement them.

how to hook up solar panels to the grid

Batteries for Grid Connected Homes

More people are deciding to have solar homes that are still connected to the grid. They also utilize batteries to reduce their use of grid electricity due to the declining cost of lithium-ion batteries. 

As a result, you gain the energy independence of living off the grid while also having the ability to switch back to grid power as necessary.

There are a few causes for this that you might consider.

If you have a net billing plan then using your own electricity instead of the grid will be more cost-effective. This is even with the additional cost of batteries.

If you experience a lot of blackouts where you live, then having batteries will enable you to keep your lights on during this time. Find out can you hook a solar panel directly to a battery.

Several different battery types are being developed by numerous manufacturers, specifically for the solar sector. 

connect solar panels to house

Key Takeaways

Now that you know how to connect solar panels to the grid, you can save money by doing it yourself. By using solar panels, you can be saving the amount of power that your power grid uses.

In the case of power surges or blackouts, you will be able to power some necessities in your home. You will also be able to safely transport electricity to your loads if you have the correct equipment and safety components.

Connecting solar panels to the grid can be an easy task if you have the right materials and tools. Once you have installed your solar system, you won’t have to worry about power outages again.

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