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Do Solar Panels Produce AC or DC?

By Benjamin Strusnik August 12, 2022

If you’re looking to install solar panels in your home or business, you might wonder whether solar panels produce AC or DC current. This is an important question to understand.

Solar panels themselves produce DC, and most of your home appliances run on AC. This means you cannot simply buy solar panels and immediately generate usable power. 

There are other essential components in your solar system, and we cover that in this article. Once you understand these, you can better understand your needs.

 

The Difference Between AC and DC

do solar panels produce dc or ac

The first thing to make sure you understand is the difference between AC and DC. 

What Is AC?

AC stands for alternating current because the flow of current changes directions regularly. This means the current isn’t flowing in one direction. However, AC still transfers energy to the appliance you have plugged in. 

When it comes to electricity, it’s crucial to understand polarity. There are both positive and negative poles in a circuit. With AC, the polarity can switch many times in a second. 

What Uses AC?

Most household appliances use AC. One reason for this is that AC can more easily be converted to a different voltage, either higher or lower. 

Another benefit of AC is that it’s easier to send across long distances. This means that the grid can provide you with reliable electricity, even if you don’t live near a substation. 

AC is what comes out of the plugs in your home, and is more commonly used. 

does solar panel produce ac or dc

What Is DC?

DC refers to direct current. With DC, the current always flows in the same direction. It’s harder to change the voltage or transfer it consistently across long distances. 

What Uses DC?

While household appliances use AC, batteries most commonly use DC. This is because batteries have both a positive and negative pole and the direction of the current needs to be consistent. 

While you can purchase specific appliances that use DC, they’re much harder to find and often significantly more expensive. 

Solar panels produce DC because the light from the sun is absorbed and creates a flow of electrons in one direction. 

Because solar panels are absorbing the sun’s light, you might wonder if solar panels reflect heat. It’s important not to touch them during the day, as they do get hot. 

Why You Need an Inverter

Because solar panels produce DC, you need a solar power inverter. An inverter converts the DC collected by the solar panel into AC that you can use. 

does solar panel produce dc or ac

When calculating the output of your solar panels, you need to factor in the fact that there may be some energy lost in the conversion from DC to AC. 

The most common way to convert DC to AC is to have what is called a string inverter. This means that you have one inverter connected to all of your solar panels at once. 

The advantage of this system is that you only need to purchase one inverter. You may experience some issues with solar panel inverter noise

Another potential disadvantage is that if your inverter stops working, your whole system stops functioning. 

Microinverters

Solar panels that each contain a microinverter are a newer technology. Instead of one inverter connected to an array of solar panels, each individual panel has its own small inverter.

This means you don’t need to buy a system-wide inverter. However, it also means there are more components that could possibly break. 

These kinds of AC solar panels are also more expensive because they’re more complex and are also a more recent development. 

Your Full Solar System

Whether you’re calling in the professionals or working with a DIY home solar panel kit, it’s important to understand the various parts of your solar array.

solar panels produce dc and ac

We’ve covered the importance of an inverter, but there are a few other things to consider when setting your system up. 

Using a Battery

You use an inverter to convert the DC into usable AC, but your solar panels and inverter cannot store energy.

Your solar panels only produce electricity when they’re receiving light. This means that they won’t work at night.

In order to make use of your solar panels' energy around the clock, you need to invest in a battery. 

The sun hitting your panels produces a direct current that can be stored in deep-cycle solar batteries. This means that you can use this power even when the sun is not shining.  

solar panels producing dc and ac

At this point, you may be thinking about using a car battery for solar panels. While this may be possible, it is not a good idea. 

While car batteries are cheap, they aren’t designed in the same way as deep cycle solar batteries and don’t work as well as batteries designed specifically for solar arrays. 

Getting a quality battery is an important part of building up your new solar system, as producing large amounts of energy is only useful if you can store it. 

You need to understand how much electricity your system is producing, how much you use, and how much you need to store. 

When working this out, don’t forget to consider that high temperatures affect solar panels. This can slightly reduce the efficiency of your solar panels. 

Importance of a Charge Controller

Another important factor to consider is the importance of a charge controller. They’re built into both batteries and generators and help with battery performance.

They regulate the charge both entering and leaving your device. This prevents batteries from overcharging and stops unnecessary discharge.  

This means that your batteries will last longer and function more efficiently. 

They also provide important information about your system and can help you to understand why solar panels have peak power

Using a Solar Generator

Another option is to go with a solar generator, like the EcoFlow Delta Pro portable power station or the Bluetti EP500 battery generator

the difference between AC and DC

These are a good option if you’re looking for something more portable, especially if you like camping. 

They work excellently when paired with portable solar panels for camping or on an RV. 

A solar generator combines the functions of a solar battery and an inverter, allowing you to use your solar panel with fewer additional parts.  

Because solar panels produce DC, you need something to convert that into usable AC power. A solar generator achieves this while also allowing you to store power for when you need it. 

This also makes them great in emergencies like floods or hurricanes when the power goes out. 

Most solar generators also come with built-in charge controllers to manage the flow of electricity through your devices. This provides you with some extra peace of mind when it comes to your solar system. 

https://shopsolarkits.com/products/bluetti-ep500-pro

Final Thoughts

Regular solar panels produce DC, and this then needs to be converted into AC through an inverter or solar generator with a built-in inverter.

This means that investing in solar energy isn’t simply buying solar panels and putting them on your roof. There are many things you need to consider. 

However, while solar panels may seem like a large investment, it’s important to understand that households or businesses that go solar have much lower electricity costs.

Because a solar system can last for around 25 years, these lower electricity costs can rack up and create a large saving over time.

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